。。On the evening of August 6, the Hiroshima Prefectural Government Office and Prefectural Air-Defense Headquarters were temporarily established at Tamon-in Temple on Hijiyama Hill.On August 7, they were moved to the Higashi (East) Police Station (in former Shimoyanagi-cho). According to official reports, there were 53 first-aid stations in Hiroshima City.
。。*On August 7, Imperial Headquarters issued the following announcement about the bombing of Hiroshima:
。。"1. Yesterday, on August 6, Hiroshima City was attacked by a small number of enemy B-29s, which left it with considerable damage.
。。 2. The enemy apparently used a new type of bomb in the above attack. The details are still under investigation.
。。*On August 7, U.S. President Harry S. Truman made a statement about he atomic bombing, saying, "Sixteen hours ago, an American airplane dropped one bomb on Hiroshima, an important Japanese army base.That bomb had more power than 20,000 tons of TNT.
。。*On August 8, [there was an air raid of Fukuyama. Imperial Headquarters announced, "On August 8, at about 9:30 p.m., sixty B-29s attacked the vicinity of Fukuyama City with incendiary bombs.
。。*On August 9, an atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Imperial Headquarters announced on the same day, 1. On August 9, at about 11:00 a.m., two large enemy bombers entered Nagasaki and appear to have used a new type of bomb. 2. The details are now under investigation, but there seems to have been relatively little damage.
。。*On August 10, regarding the damages caused by the air raids of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Japanese government protested to the United States via the Swiss government that such attacks were against international law, i.e., the Regulations respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, attached paper to the Convention respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land.
。。*On August 11, a "Student Action Corps", composed of students who were left, was organized to clear up the ruins, and they met at Hiroshima University of Literature and Science (now Hiroshima University).
。。*On August 14, Dr. Yoshio Nishina of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research reported the results of investigations, determining that it had indeed been an atomic bomb. He had reached this conclusion on August 10, by judging the results of the investigations conducted by experts dispatched by the Ministry of War and others. There was, however, no media release of this fact to the public until August 17.
。。*On August 15, Emperor Showa announced the end of war: "...The enemy used atrocious new bombs, incessantly killing and wounding innocent people, and inflicted devastation of an unfathomable extent..." The Emperor's own voice was broadcast on radio at 12:00 noon on this day, and the Japanese people understood that Japan had lost the war.
。。The released neutrons then collide with other atomic nuclei and again cause fission, in turn releasing neutrons and a huge amount of energy. When such fission is successively repeated in a very short period of time, an enormous amount of energy is generated instantaneously.
。。Because of their shapes, the U.S. Forces called the first uranium-235 bomb, dropped on Hiroshima, "Little Boy", and that dropped on Nagasaki, "Fat Man".
。。While the energy released by the Hiroshima bomb was said to be equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT, evidence of later studies indicates that its actual force was equivalent to approximately 15,000 tons of TNT. Despite the release of such an enormous amount of energy, it is believed that less than one kilogram of the ten to thirty kilograms of uranium 235 in the bomb achieved nuclear fission.
。。After this initial period, hibakusha suffered various late effects of the bombing, which were mainly attributable to radiation.
。。According to the figures of the A-bomb damage released by Hiroshima Prefectural Police Headquarters on November 30, 1945, there were 55,000 buildings which were totally burned, 2,290 half burned, 6,820 totally destroyed, 3,750 half destroyed: in total, 67,860 buildings were damaged or destroyed.
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